In TREECS, the user has four options for selecting chemical constituent databases for a given scenario: FRAMES Constituent Database, Army Range Constituent Database, Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS), or User-Defined Constituent Database. The last option must be created by the user with the Constituent Database Editor utility contained in TREECS under the 'Tools' menu. In addition to the four constituent database options, the user has two options available for health benchmarks: DoD Target Health Benchmarks, or User-Defined Benchmark Database. The section option must be created by the user with the Benchmark Database Editor utility contained in TREECS under the 'Tools' menu. Each of these databases is described more fully below.
Note that most of the models in the TREECS system will allow the user to override any chemical/physical properties obtained from the selected constituent database in their representative graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Health benchmarks are not accessible from model GUIs and the only means for the user to change the benchmarks in TREECS is via using his/her own health benchmark database.
Army Range Constituent Database
The Army Range
Constituent Database (http://treecs.el.erdc.dren.mil/pdfs/trel02-27.pdf)
was developed for the U.S. Army Environmental Command (AEC, https://el.erdc.dren.mil/arams/dbform.html)
in 2002 as a stand-alone database application with its own GUI (see Figure 1
below); it contains multiple parameter values for a given constituent.
The data for this initial version of the database was perused and a single value
for each constituent property was copied into the Framework for Risk Analysis
in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) constituent database file format
for use within the Adaptive Risk Assessment Modeling System (ARAMS, https://el.erdc.dren.mil/arams/).
FRAMES Constituent Database Editor (a data-client editor or DCE) serves as the
GUI for this database while using it within ARAMS. The original standalone
database application was later enhanced in 2005 (http://treecs.el.erdc.dren.mil/pdfs/trel05-16.pdf)
to include updated values from multiple sources and a new database format.
However, this stand-alone enhanced version lacks a GUI. Nonetheless, the
enhanced version of the database is available for use in TREECS for constituent
physical and chemical properties (e.g. molecular weight, Henry's Law Constant,
water solubility, etc.) In TREECS, chemical and physical data are transparently
pulled from the database (i.e. no DCE is used in TREECS) and made available
for model use (See Figure 2). Should multiple property values be available
for a constituent when using this database in TREECS, the user must select a
single property value to be used by the system models (See Figure 3).
Figure 1. The original stand-alone Army Range Constituent Database
Figure 2. Using the Army Range Constituent Database in TREECS
Figure 3. Using the Army Range Constituent Database in TREECS when multiple parameter values are available
FRAMES Constituent Database
system was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).
FRAMES contains a Microsoft Access constituent database for toxicity, chemical,
radiological, and physical properties, bioaccumulation, and food transfer factors
for chemicals and radionuclides accessible from the FRAMES Constituent Database
Editor (see Figures 4 and 5 below). Chemical and physical data from the
database are available for use in TREECS for specifying chemical and physical
properties of constituents and are transparently pulled from the database (i.e.
no DCE is used in TREECS) and made available for model use (See Figure 6).
The constituent chemical and physical properties are subsequently used by the
system models. TREECS also allows the user to use his/her own constituent
database based on the FRAMES constituent database format. The user can
select the TREECS 'Tools' menu and the 'Constituent Database Editor' menu item
to create a constituent database for use in TREECS.
Figure 4. The FRAMES Constituent Database Editor DCE as viewed from FRAMES or ARAMS
Figure 5. The FRAMES Constituent Database Editor showing the constituent properties as viewed from FRAMES or ARAMS
Figure 6. Using the FRAMES Constituent Database in TREECS
Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) Constituent Database
The RAIS, http://rais.ornl.gov/, was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (See Figure 7). TREECS allows use of a local Microsoft Access version of the RAIS database to obtain constituent chemical and physical properties for use by the system models. In TREECS, chemical and physical data are transparently pulled from the database (i.e. no DCE is used in TREECS) and made available for model use (See Figure 8).
Figure 7. The online RAIS Constituent Database
Figure 8. Using the RAIS Constituent Database in TREECS
User-Defined Constituent Database
TREECS provides the option for a user-defined constituent database. The constituent database must be based on the FRAMES constituent database Microsoft Access in database format. The Tools --> Constituent Database Editor utility will assist the user in creating the database if so desired. The database can then be selected for use within the TREECS GUI. Chemical and physical data from the user's database for selected constituents are transparently pulled from the database (i.e. no DCE is used in TREECS) and made available for model use (See Figure 9).
Figure 9. User-Defined Constituent Database in TREECS
DoD Target Health Benchmark Database
health benchmarks used in TREECS are based on a munitions chemical constituent,
media (fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater, marine sediment,
or freshwater sediment), a receptor (eco or human), and for some constituents,
sediment total organic carbon or TOC. Based on this information a target
health benchmark can be obtained from the Microsoft Access database. The
benchmarks were provided by the Army Environmental Command (AEC) following development
and agreement by the Armed Services of the Department of Defense (DoD).
An example of what the DoD Target Health Benchmark screen in TREECS looks like
is shown in Figure 10. The benchmarks cannot be edited by the user from
within TREECS. In order to use one's own health benchmarks, the user would
need to use the Benchmark Database Editor located under the TREECS 'Tools' menu.
Figure 10. Using the DoD Target Health Benchmarks in TREECS
User-Defined Health Benchmark Database
TREECS allows the user to use his/her own health benchmarks in an analysis. However, the database structure must be the same as that for the DoD Target Health Benchmarks database. TREECS has a utility called Benchmark Database Editor located under the 'Tools' menu that can be used to create one's own health benchmark database. Note: health benchmarks are not accessible from model GUIs and the only means for users to change the benchmarks is via their own health benchmark database in TREECS. An example of what the user-defined health benchmark screen in TREECS looks like is shown in Figure 11.
Figure 11. User-Defined Health Benchmarks in TREECS